Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (2023)

To review background knowledge, this activity asks students to build models of ionic and covalent bonds between atoms. Students need to understand the parts of an atom prior to this lesson. Students also need a basic understanding of the periodic table of the elements. Students should also understand how to write basic chemical equations.

In advance of the lesson, prepare paper bags of materials for the Day 3 lab. Examples of common ionic bonds include NaCl, MgCl, LiF, KBr, LiCl, MgO, Li2O, and AlCl3. Examples of common covalent bonds include H2O, CH4, CO2, NH3, O2, H2, HCl, and CCl4. Read through the lab and practice demonstrating it.

Day 1

To introduce the lesson, have students answer the following prompt in their science notebooks. “Diagram the basic structure of an atom and label the atom’s protons, neutrons, and electrons. Write a definition for atom and molecule under the diagram.” Allow several minutes for independent work. Then, as a class, agree upon definitions for atom and molecule. Write the definitions on the board for students to copy in their notes.

Tell students the objectives for this lesson. Have students take out their periodic table handouts (S-C-6-1_Periodic Table.pdf).

Ask, “How can we tell how many electrons are in an atom of an element?” (The atomic number is equal to the number of electrons.) Ask, “How many electrons does an atom of oxygen have?” (8) “…hydrogen? Magnesium?” (Hydrogen has 1 electron, and magnesium has 12 electrons.)

Explain that when atoms combine, only the electrons in the outermost energy level are involved. These are the valence electrons. Show students how to use the group number of an element to determine the number of valence electrons. For example, ask them how many electrons a carbon atom has (6), and then tell them that there are two electrons in the first energy level and four valence electrons.

Tell students that the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number for representative elements. For example, hydrogen is in group 1 and it has 1 valence electron. Neon is in group 18 and it has 8 valence electrons. The only exception is helium, which is in group 18 but only has 2 valence electrons. Check for understanding by asking students the number of valence electrons for several other elements, such as calcium, boron, and silicon. (Calcium has 2, boron has 3, and silicon has 6 valence electrons.)

Tell students that we can use a diagram called a Lewis dot structure to draw an atom with its valence electrons. On the board, draw the Lewis dot structures of a carbon atom and a magnesium atom, as shown below.

Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (1)

Hand out Valence Electrons and Lewis Dot Structures (S-C-6-1_Valence Electrons and Lewis Dot Structures and KEY.doc). Have students complete Parts 1 and 2. It may be helpful to model an example for each part before students begin working. Go over the answers with the class.

Tell students that Lewis dot structures can be used to show how the arrangement of electrons changes when atoms combine to form compounds.

Explain the octet rule, that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in the highest main energy level, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas. It is also called the noble gas rule. The noble gases do not react with other elements. They are very stable because the s- and p- sublevels in the highest main energy level are filled. Noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer shell (except helium, which has 2).

Guide students step-by-step in completing the Octet Rule Chart (S-C-6-1_Octet Rule Chart and KEY.doc).

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Wrap up the lesson by asking students to explain why atoms combine with one another. (They combine in order to have a stable valence electron shell.)

Day 2: Trends in the Periodic Table.

Have students take out their periodic tables. Tell them that we can use the periodic table to predict which elements are more likely to bond with one another.

Explain that there are two types of bonds, ionic and covalent. For now, just tell students that atoms in covalent bonds share electrons and atoms in ionic bonds transfer electrons. Show students a picture of covalent and ionic bonds (S-C-6-1_Covalent and Ionic Bonds.doc). Point out to students that ionic bonding occurs between metals and nonmetals, and covalent bonding occurs between two nonmetals. For example, Na is a metal and Cl is a nonmetal, so NaCl will form an ionic bond.

Define ions as atoms that have acquired an electrical charge by either gaining or losing electrons. Explain that metals tend to lose electrons, forming positive ions (cations). Nonmetals tend to gain electrons, forming negative ions (anions). If they have not already done so, guide students in labeling or color-coding the metals and nonmetals on their periodic tables. Have students identify the following compounds as ionic or covalent:

MgO (ionic)

CaCl2 (ionic)

SO2 (covalent)

PbCl2 (ionic)

CCl4 (covalent)

CH4 (covalent)

Next, explain the concept of electronegativity, which is a number that describes the ability of an atom to attract electrons when it forms a bond with another atom. Give students copies of Electronegativity Trends in the Periodic Table (S-C-6-1_Electronegativity Trends.doc). Have them look at the trends on the periodic table and add this sentence below it, “Electronegativity increases from left to right, and decreases from top to bottom.” Ask, “Why don’t most of the noble gases have electronegativity values?” (Because they do not have valence electrons that are available to form chemical bonds.)

Tell students we can determine the type of bond based on the difference in electronegativity between atoms. Have them copy the following notes on the handout:

  • Difference in electronegativity (ΔEN) = higher EN – lower EN
  • ΔEN less than 1.7 = covalent bond
  • ΔEN more than 1.7 = ionic bond

Example 1: HCl

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ΔEN = 3.0 – 2.1 = 0.9

Example 2: NBr3

ΔEN = 3.0 – 2.8 = 0.2 (for each bond)

Have students determine the ΔEN and type of bond for these compounds: CrO, Br2, CH4, and KCl.

Solutions:

ΔEN of CrO = 3.5 − 1.6 = 1.9 (ionic)

ΔEN of Br2 = 2.8 − 2.8 = 0 (covalent)

ΔEN of CH4 = 2.5 − 2.1 = 0.4 (covalent)

ΔEN of KCl = 3.0 − 0.8 = 2.2 (ionic)

Ionic Bonding

Explain how the octet rule relates to ions. Define ions as atoms that have acquired an electrical charge by either gaining or losing electrons. Tell students that a neutral atom has a number of electrons equal to the number of protons (e.g., a sodium atom that has 11 electrons). Have them write down the definitions of ion and neutral atom. Have them recall the Lewis dot structure for sodium (from the worksheet), and ask how many valence electrons it has. (one)

Tell students sodium will lose one electron to attain a noble gas configuration. Chlorine will take the electron and leave sodium with the noble gas configuration. When sodium and chlorine bond together, sodium becomes an ion (Na+), because it has lost one electron. Have students copy the following notes; explain the diagrams as you present them. Point out that the metal is listed first, and then the nonmetal.

sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride

Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (2)

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Explain that when Na combines with Cl, the Na becomes a cation (positive ion), and the Cl becomes an anion (negative ion). If needed, review how to use the octet rule to find the ionic charge for atoms of various elements from Day 1.

Have students practice by drawing Lewis dot structures to show how a bond forms between Li and F.

lithium + fluorine → lithium fluoride

[Li]+ [F]-

Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (3)

Give students an example of a more complex ionic bond, shown below. Explain that atoms will follow the octet rule when they form bonds, so that their valence shells are full. It may require several atoms to fulfill the octet rule.

potassium + sulfur → potassium sulfide

Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (4)

Give students the Ionic Bonding worksheet (S-C-6-1_Ionic Bonding and KEY.doc). Have them complete the worksheet individually or in pairs, and then go over the answers with the class. Provide more examples of ionic bonding and ask questions about them to assess students’ understanding of the concept. Have students copy the diagrams into their notes.

Covalent Bonding

Remind students that covalent bonding occurs between two nonmetals. In covalent bonding, electrons are shared instead of transferred. Covalent bonding follows the octet rule like ionic bonding does.

Show students the covalent bonding between hydrogen and fluorine using the diagrams below. Explain the electron shell diagram and the Lewis dot structure as you draw them on the board and have students copy them into their notes.

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Ionic and Covalent Bonding - SAS (5)

Give students the Covalent Bonding worksheet (S-C-6-1_Covalent Bonding and KEY.doc). Guide students through the worksheet examples, and have them complete the problems. Go over the answers with the class. If necessary, provide more examples of multiple bonds, such as Br2 and O2.

Have students copy the following guidelines for drawing Lewis dot structures into their notes:

1. Count the total number of valence electrons.

2. Draw a skeleton of the molecule (just the atomic symbols).

3. Draw the bonds; each bond is made up of two electrons.

4. Draw in the remaining electrons.

5. Check the octet rule for each atom.

6. If needed, make double or triple bonds to fulfill the octet rule.

Day 3

Lab: Modeling Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Hand out the worksheet Ionic versus Covalent Bonding (S-C-6-1_Ionic versus Covalent Bonding and KEY.doc). Have students complete the worksheet before beginning the lab.

Explain to students that they will demonstrate their understanding of ionic and covalent bonds by creating models of them. Divide students into pairs, and give each pair a bag containing the gumdrops and bamboo skewer pieces. Use the sample bag of materials to explain the purpose of the different materials by creating a model of sodium chloride (NaCl) as an example. Each large gumdrop represents the nucleus of an atom. The small gumdrops represent electrons. Students should note that there are two colors of gumdrops, and each atom to be created should use one color; for example, if creating sodium chloride, the electrons in the sodium atom should be one color and the electrons in the chlorine atom should be the other color. The different lengths of bamboo skewers will help students create the different energy levels of electrons.

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Have each pair of students draw a slip of paper from the bag containing simple ionic bonds, and draw a slip from the bag containing simple covalent bonds. Students should use the materials in their bags to create models of the ionic and covalent bonds they have selected. Tell students that depending on the bonds they are creating, they may not use all of the materials. When pairs finish a model, have them raise their hands to notify you that they are ready for you to check the model. Once you approve a model, the pair should tape the slip of paper with the type of bond to one of the skewers. If time permits, these slips can be removed and students can use their knowledge of the elements to determine what molecules and types of bonds are being represented.

To close the lesson, have each student diagram three-dimensional models of ionic and covalent bonds, labeling each atom and the type of molecule that is shown.

Extension:

  • Students who might need an opportunity for additional learning can color-code the electrons from different elements in a compound. For example, in H2O, the hydrogen electrons may be black and the oxygen electrons may be red. It may be helpful to have students manipulate coins or other objects to represent the sharing or transfer of electrons in ionic and covalent bonding. Provide students with additional examples of ionic and covalent bonding, and allow extra time for reviewing the practice problems step-by-step.
  • Students who may be going beyond the standards can read the article, “Glue of Molecular Existence Is Finally Unveiled” found at www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/featured_articles/19990907tuesday.html. Then have them write a paragraph to summarize the article.
  • During the lab, students who may be going beyond the standards can create models of more complex molecules, such as O3 (ozone), Al2O3 (aluminum oxide), or H2SO4 (sulfuric acid).

FAQs

What is ionic bond answers? ›

ionic bond, also called electrovalent bond, type of linkage formed from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical compound. Such a bond forms when the valence (outermost) electrons of one atom are transferred permanently to another atom.

What is ionic and covalent bonds examples? ›

Ionic bonds usually occur between metal and nonmetal ions. For example, sodium (Na), a metal, and chloride (Cl), a nonmetal, form an ionic bond to make NaCl. In a covalent bond, the atoms bond by sharing electrons. Covalent bonds usually occur between nonmetals.

What are 3 differences between ionic and covalent bonds? ›

A molecule or compound is made when two or more atoms form a chemical bond, linking them together. The two types of bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
...
Ionic vs Covalent Bonds Summary.
Ionic BondsCovalent Bonds
PolarityHighLow
ShapeNo definite shapeDefinite shape
Melting PointHighLow
Boiling PointHighLow
4 more rows
23 Jan 2020

How can you tell if a bond is ionic or covalent? ›

If you have two nonmetals, engaged in some type of bonding activity, this is likely to be a covalent bond. And the general rule of thumb is if you have one metal, and one nonmetal, that this is likely to be an ionic bond. These are the general rules of thumb.

What is covalent bond very short answer? ›

A covalent bond consists of the mutual sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms. These electrons are simultaneously attracted by the two atomic nuclei. A covalent bond forms when the difference between the electronegativities of two atoms is too small for an electron transfer to occur to form ions.

What is covalent bond answer? ›

A covalent bond is formed by equal sharing of electrons from both the participating atoms. The pair of electrons participating in this type of bonding is called shared pair or bonding pair. The covalent bonds are also termed as molecular bonds.

What are 5 examples of covalent bonds? ›

Five examples of covalent bonds are hydrogen (H₂), oxygen (O₂), nitrogen (N₂), water (H₂O), and methane(CH₄). 2. What is a covalent bond? A chemical bond involving the sharing of electron pairs between atoms is known as a covalent bond.

What is an example ionic bond? ›

One example of an ionic bond is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, from a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has just enough space to accept it.

What are the 4 types of bonds in chemistry? ›

Four main bonding types are discussed here: ionic, covalent, metallic, and molecular.

What are 3 characteristics of covalent bonds? ›

Properties of Covalent Compounds:
  • The covalent compounds exist as gases or liquids or soft solids.
  • The melting and boiling points of covalent compounds are generally low.
  • Covalent compound are insoluble in water but dissolve in organic solvents.
  • They are non-conductors of electricity in solid, molten or aqueous state.

What are 3 characteristics of ionic bonds? ›

Key Takeaways. Ionic compounds have high melting points. Ionic compounds are hard and brittle. Ionic compounds dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.

What are 4 differences between ionic and covalent bonds? ›

In ionic bonds, one atom donates an electron to stabilize the other atom. In a covalent bond, the atoms are bound by the sharing of electrons. Atoms that participate in an ionic bond have different electronegativity values from each other.

Is H2O a covalent or ionic? ›

Water (H2O), like hydrogen fluoride (HF), is a polar covalent molecule.

Which is stronger bond ionic or covalent? ›

So, in conclusion the ionic bonds are strongest among ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds.

Why covalent bonds are called? ›

The term covalent bond dates from 1939. The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence", such as is discussed in valence bond theory. , the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding.

What is called covalent? ›

Cobalt is a lustrous very hard silvery metal belonging to a group called the "transition metals". It is one of only 3 ferromagnetic transition elements along with iron and nickel.

What is covalent give its example? ›

In Lewis terms a covalent bond is a shared electron pair. The bond between a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom in hydrogen chloride is formulated as follows: In a Lewis structure of a covalent compound, the shared electron pair between the hydrogen and chlorine ions is represented by a line.

Why do ionic bonds form? ›

An ionic bond can be formed after two or more atoms loss or gain electrons to form an ion. Ionic bonds occur between metals, losing electrons, and nonmetals, gaining electrons. Ions with opposite charges will attract one another creating an ionic bond.

How many covalent bonds are in h2o? ›

How many covalent bonds hold the water molecule together? A: The oxygen atom shares one pair of valence electrons with each hydrogen atom. Each pair of shared electrons represents one covalent bond, so two covalent bonds hold the water molecule together.

What are the 2 different types of covalent bonds? ›

There are two basic types of covalent bonds: polar and nonpolar.

Is CO2 a covalent bond? ›

The type of bond between atoms in a molecule of CO2 is polar covalent bond. In carbon dioxide molecule, a carbon atom is joined by four covalent bonds to two oxygen atoms, which have two covalent bonds each.

Is nacl a covalent bond? ›

Hence, sodium chloride is an ionic compound and not covalent.

What are the 4 types of ionic compounds? ›

  • Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal and a Nonmetal. A binary compound is a compound formed from two different elements. ...
  • Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal and a Polyatomic Ion. Metals combine with polyatomic ions to give ionic compounds. ...
  • Acids and Acid Salts. ...
  • Binary Compounds Between Two Nonmetals.

What are the 4 ionic compounds? ›

Ionic compounds include salts, oxides, hydroxides, sulphides, and the majority of inorganic compounds. Ionic solids are held together by the electrostatic attraction between the positive and negative ions. For example, the sodium ions attract chloride ions and the chloride ion attracts sodium ions.

What are 5 properties of ionic bonding? ›

Properties Shared by Ionic Compounds
  • They form crystals. ...
  • They have high melting points and high boiling points. ...
  • They have higher enthalpies of fusion and vaporization than molecular compounds. ...
  • They're hard and brittle. ...
  • They conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water. ...
  • They're good insulators.
1 Mar 2021

What are 2 ionic compounds? ›

Ionic compound examples. Two-element ionic compounds include sodium chloride or table salt. Here the sodium ion, Na+ , is a positive ion, so it is attracted to the chlorine atom (ion), Cl− , which has a negative charge, and the ionic bond is formed.

Which is strongest bond? ›

In chemistry, a covalent bond is the strongest bond, In such bonding, each of two atoms shares electrons that bind them together. For example - water molecules are bonded together where both hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms share electrons to form a covalent bond.

What type of bond is h2o? ›

Strong linkages—called covalent bonds—hold together the hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red) atoms of individual H2O molecules. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms—in this case oxygen and hydrogen—share electrons with each other.

What is nonpolar vs polar? ›

When things are different at each end, we call them polar. Some molecules have positive and negative ends too, and when they do, we call them polar. If they don't, we call them non-polar. Things that are polar can attract and repel each other (opposite charges attract, alike charges repel).

What are the 2 main properties of covalent compounds? ›

The boiling/melting points of covalent compounds are low. They are soft in nature and relatively flexible. These compounds do not possess electrical conductivity.

What is single covalent bond? ›

Single covalent bond is the bond which is formed by sharing of one electron pair between two atoms in which each atom contributes one electron. It is represented by putting short line between two atoms. For example, consider the formation of molecule. Hydrogen atom has one electron in its valence shell.

How many types of ionic are there? ›

There are two types of ions : cations. anions.

What are positive atoms called? ›

ion, any atom or group of atoms that bears one or more positive or negative electrical charges. Positively charged ions are called cations; negatively charged ions, anions.

What are 4 properties of ionic bonds? ›

PROPERTIES OF IONIC COMPOUNDS

They are usually crystalline solids. They have high melting points and high boiling points. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents. They conduct electricity when dissolved in water or when melted.

What are the 5 physical properties of ionic and covalent bond? ›

Ionic compounds are non-volatile and have high melting and boiling points. They are usually soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents. They can conduct electricity in the molten and aqueous states. Covalent compounds are volatile and have low melting and boiling points.

Which types of elements can form covalent bonds? ›

What elements make covalent bonds? Covalent bonds form when two or more nonmetals combine. For example, both hydrogen and oxygen are nonmetals, and when they combine to make water, they do so by forming covalent bonds.

Is NH3 covalent or ionic? ›

NH3 is a covalent bond. This is because, Nitrogen and Hydrogen have shared the electron. The main difference between an ionic and covalent bond is ionic bond will donate or accept electron.

Is NH3 covalent bond? ›

In a molecule of ammonia, one nitrogen atom shares one electron each with 3 hydrogen atoms and forms 3 single covalent bonds.

What type of bond is NH3? ›

Ammonia contains nitrogen and hydrogen, which are both nonmetals. So nitrogen forms three covalent bonds with the three hydrogen present.

Which is the weakest bond? ›

Therefore, Hydrogen bond is the weakest bond.

Which is faster ionic or covalent? ›

In general ionic bonds are formed faster than covalent bonds because in covalent compounds there has to be a bond breakage that will slow down the entire reaction, whereas in ionic bond it is more or less a substitution of ions.

Why is covalent the strongest bond? ›

Covalent bonds are the strongest bonds in nature and under normal biological conditions have to be broken with the help of enzymes. This is due to the even sharing of electrons between the bonded atoms and as with anything equally shared there is no conflict to weaken the arrangement.

What is ionic solid short answer? ›

Hint: Ionic solids are basically the solids that are held together by strong ionic bonds, the lattices of which are composed of oppositely charged ions i.e. they consist of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions. These solids tend to have high melting points and are almost electrically insulating.

What is an ionic bond Simple? ›

An ionic bond is a chemical bond formed when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom. Ionic bonds are also known as electrovalent bonds.

What is ionic bond Class 10 short answer? ›

An Ionic bond is the bond formed by the complete transfer of valence electron to attain stability. This type of bonding leads to the formation of two oppositely charged ions – positive ions known as cations and negative ions known as anions.

What is ionic in simple words? ›

/aɪˈɒn.ɪk/ relating to an atom or small group of atoms that has an electrical charge because it has added or lost one or more electrons: ionic bonding.

Why is it called ionic? ›

Ionic compounds are named for their positive and negative ions. The name of the positive ion always comes first, followed by the name of the negative ion. For example, positive sodium ions and negative chloride ions form the compound named sodium chloride.

Is ionic liquid or gas? ›

Ionic Liquids (ILs) are defined as salts that melt below 100 degrees Celsius. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) are further defined as salts which are liquid at room temperature. Gases can interact with Ionic Liquids via a process called absorption.

What is ionic character? ›

Ionic character refers to the percentage of difference between the electronegativity of two covalently bonded atoms.

What are 5 properties of ionic? ›

Properties Shared by Ionic Compounds
  • They form crystals. ...
  • They have high melting points and high boiling points. ...
  • They have higher enthalpies of fusion and vaporization than molecular compounds. ...
  • They're hard and brittle. ...
  • They conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water. ...
  • They're good insulators.
1 Mar 2021

What are the 4 properties of ionic bonds? ›

Key Takeaways
  • Ionic compounds have high melting points.
  • Ionic compounds are hard and brittle.
  • Ionic compounds dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.
  • Solutions of ionic compounds and melted ionic compounds conduct electricity, but solid materials do not.
13 Aug 2022

What are the different types of covalent bonds? ›

There are two types of covalent bonds: polar and nonpolar.

What are the types of ionic? ›

  • Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal and a Nonmetal. A binary compound is a compound formed from two different elements. ...
  • Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal and a Polyatomic Ion. Metals combine with polyatomic ions to give ionic compounds. ...
  • Acids and Acid Salts. ...
  • Binary Compounds Between Two Nonmetals.

What are ions examples? ›

Many normal substances exist in the body as ions. Common examples include sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate. These substances are known as electrolytes. Ions can be created using radiation such as x-rays.

Is ionic positive or negative? ›

Ions. Atoms are neutral; they contain the same number of protons as electrons. By definition, an ion is an electrically charged particle produced by either removing electrons from a neutral atom to give a positive ion or adding electrons to a neutral atom to give a negative ion.

Videos

1. CHEMISTRY : Chapter No 2.5 & 2.6 : Covalent Bonding and Metallic Bonding
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3. Atoms & Molecules
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4. CHAPTER FOUR // CHEMICAL BONDING // LEWIS STRUCTURE PART 1
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5. Lewis Structures, Introduction, Formal Charge, Molecular Geometry, Resonance, Polar or Nonpolar
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